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2021年考研英语二完形填空真题答案解析(沈阳考研网)

来源: 考研网校     2021-05-19 14:08     点击:   次

  It is not difficult to set targets for staff. It is much harder, _1_,to understand their negative consequences._2_ one and the others become distorted.

  Travel on a London bus and you’ll _3_see how this works with drivers. Watch people get on and show their tickets. Are there carefully inspected?Never. Do people get on without paying? Of course! Are there inspectors to _4_ that people who have paid? Possibly but very few. And people who run for the bus? They are _5_ . How about jumping lights? Buses do so almost as frequently as cyclists.

  Why? Because the target is_6_. People complained that buses were late and in-frequent. _7_, the number of the buses and bus lanes were increased and drivers were _8_or punished according to the time they took. And drivers hit these targets. But they _9_ hit the cyclists. If the target was changed to_10_, you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing. If the criterion changed to safety, you would get more _11_ drivers who obeyed traffic laws. But both these criteria would be at the expense of time.

  There is another _12_: people became immensely inventive in hitting targets. Have you _13_ that you can leave on flight an hour late but still arrive on time? Tailwinds? Of course not! Airlines have simply changed the time a _14_ is meant to take. A one-hour flight is now billed as a two hour flight.

  The _15_ of the story is simple: most jobs are multidimensional, with multiple criteria. Choose one criterion and you may well __16__ others. Everything can be done faster and made cheaper, but there is a _17_. Setting targets can be and does have unforeseen negative consequences.

  This is not an argument against target-setting. But it is an argument for exploring consequences first. All good targets should have multiple criteria _18_critical fac-tors such as time, money, quality and customer feedback. The trick is not only to _19_just one or even two dimensions of the objective. but also to understand how to help people better __20__ the objective.

  1 [A] therefore [B] however [C] again [D] moreover

  2 [A] identify [B] emphasize [C] assess [D] explain

  3 [A] quickly [B] curiously [C] early [D] nearly

  4 [A] claim [B] prove [C] recall [D] check

  5 [A] threatened [B] ignored [C] mocked [D] blamed

  6 [A] hospitality [B] punctuality [C] competition [D] innovation

  7 [A] yes [B] so [C] besides [D] still

  8 [A] hired [B] trained [C] grouped [D] rewarded

  9 [A] also [B] only [C] rather [D] once

  10 [A] comfort [B] efficiency [C] revenue [D] security

  11 [A] friendly [B] quiet [C] diligent [D] cautious

  12 [A] purpose [B] prejudice [C] problem [D] policy

  13 [A] noticed [B] revealed [C] reported [D] admitted

  14 [A] break [B] departure [C] trip [D] transfer

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